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Scientific study of human social behavior. As the study of humans in their collective aspect, sociology is concerned with all group activities—economic, social, political, and religious. The Columbia Encyclopedia

ASA Style Resources

ASA Reference Guide


American Sociological Association Style Guide, 5th ed
. - at Library - Circulation Desk HM 569 .A54. 2014

OWL of Purdue illustrates ASA Style Formatting:

All references should be in alphabetical order, double-spaced, with a hanging indent. PUNCTUATIONone space after all punctuation marks.



List each author. It’s not sufficient to use the phrase et al. in references, unless the book was authored by a committee, organization, governmental agency, etc., such as, United States Department of Agriculture, American Psychological Association (APA), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), etc. If a committee is the author, the committee would be the single author. For more details on books/e-books, see below. 

PUNCTUATIONone space after all punctuation marks




1st example
LAST name first

2nd example

3rd example

4th example E-BOOK Like a book, add date of access & URL, if no DOI.

5th example
Association as author.

6th example
U.S. Government
as author

For Books, list all authors’ full names. The first author’s name is inverted, meaning last name first, first name and middle name. Second and subsequent authors’ names are listed: first name, middle name (or initial, if that’s all that’s available), and then last name. Separate all authors’ names with a comma, even if there are just two. Include the word and before listing the last author, then end with period. Next publication date with a period. Next, put the title of the book in Title Caps. (“Title Caps” means the first letter of each word is capitalized, except
for certain small words, such as a, an, theas, of, by, for, in, as, to, etc.). Italicize book title. Follow title with a period. Next, capitalize location of the publisher, state, or province postal code (or name of country if a foreign publisher), colon, followed by the name of publisher capitalized, then a period. For e-books, citations are the same, except the date of access and the URL must be cited.


6 Examples:

Woods, Ron. 2007. Social Issues in Sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Turner, Jonathan H., and Jan E. Stets. 2005. The Sociology of Emotions. New

           York: Cambridge UniversityPress.

Moos, Rudolph H., John W. Finney, and Ruth C. Cronkite. 1990. Alcoholism Treatment:

           Context, Process, and Outcome. New York: Oxford University Press.

Flanagan, William George. 2010. Urban Sociology: Images and Structure.  Lahham: 

           Rowman & Littlefield.  Retrieved August 2, 2017 from


American Sociological Association. 2014. American Sociological Association Style

. 5th ed.  Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.

U.S. Department of Justice. Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1984.  Criminal Victimization in

          the U.S., 1983.  Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.



1st example - ONE EDITOR (ed.) Citing whole book 

2nd example
 EDITORS (eds.) Citing whole book

3rd example - EBOOK WITH TWO EDITORS.  Citing whole book. Include URL in parentheses

 For Books with an Editor or Editors, treat the editor’s name or editors’ names as you would the author or authors. However, use the notation ed. after one author’s name to denote that he or she is the editor. And, use eds. after listing all editors’ names to denote that these are the editors. Separate all editors’ names with a comma, even if there are just two. Use the word and between the second to last and the last editor. For more details on books, refer to the box above. PUNCTUATION: one space after all punctuation marks.


3 Examples:

Laurenson, Diana, ed. 1978. The Sociology of Literature: Applied Studies. Keele, England: University of

           Keele Press.

Apple, Michael W., Stephen J. Ball, and Luis Armando Gandin, eds. 2010. The Routledge International
           Handbook of Sociology of Education
. London; New York: Routledge.

Redclift, Michael R., and Graham Woodgate, eds. 2010. The International Handbook of Environmental

. Northhampton, MA: Edward Elgar. Retrieved on July 25, 2017 from










1st example - CHAPTER IN A BOOK.

2nd example - REFERENCE BOOK with more than one volume.

When citing a Chapter in a Book, list all authors’ full names. First author’s name is inverted. Second and subsequent authors’ names are listed: first name, middle name (if available), then last name. Separate all authors’ names with a comma. Put “and” before listing the last author. End with period. Year of publication with a period. Next, title of the chapter or article in quotation marks with the period inside the end quote. Next add page range with Pp. ??-?? in Name of Publication (italicized), then edited by*. Location of publisher, state abbreviation: Publisher’s name.
*There is almost always an author or authors of a chapter in a book or encyclopedia article.  There are also editor’s or an editor of the work.  The name(s) of the editor(s) appear at the end, before the publication information.  Use initials for editors’ first and middle names, then last name.  Names aren’t inverted for editors when you are citing a chapter author.

2 Examples:

Manning, Wendy D., and Susan L. Brown. 2014. “American Families: Demographic Trends and Social

           Class.” Pp. 43-60 in The Sociology of Families, edited by J. Treas, J. Scott, and M. Richards.

           Somerset: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.

Ruspini, Elisabetta. 2013. “Social Problem, Divorce as a.” Pp. 1122–26 in Cultural Sociology of Divorce:

           An Encyclopedia. Vol. 3, edited by R.E. Emery. Los Angeles: Sage

More Print Materials

1st example - NEWSPAPER (non-sequential pages).

2nd example - MAGAZINE ARTICLE

Guiles, Melinda, and Krystal Miller. 1990. “Mazda and Mitsubishi-Chrysler Venture Cut

           Output, Following Big
Three’s Lead.” Wall Street Journal, January 12, pp. A2, A12.

Ripley, Amanda. 2011. “The World’s Schoolmaster:  How a German Scientist is Using

Data to Revolutionize Global Learning.” Atlantic Monthly, July/August, pp.


Journal Articles
List all authors’ full names. For the first author only, list the last name first, then first name, then middle name.  All subsequent authors’ names are listed: first name, middle name (or initial, if that’s all that is available), then the last name. Separate all authors with commas. Put the word “and” between last two authors’ names. There is no punctuation between the journal title and volume, issue, pages.  There is no space after the colon preceding the page numbers.







1st example - ONE AUTHOR. LAST name first, then First name, then Full Middle name, if available. Article without a DOI? Then include retrieval date and URL in parentheses.

2nd example - MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR Put LAST name first, then First name, then full middle name.  For all other authors, use First name, Middle name, Last name. Article without a DOI. include retrieval date and URL in parentheses

First author’s name, is inverted (last name firstlast name appears first, then first name, middle name or initial.  Subsequent authors’ names appear first, middle and then last name. Year. “Title of the Article in Title Caps with Quotation Marks.” Journal Title in *Title Caps and Italicized volume number(issue number):page numbers of the article (no spaces, see below). Note:  there are no spaces between volume number and issue number, colon, and page numbers. *Title Caps means that the first letter of each word is capitalized, except for certain small words.  These small words include articles: a, an, the, etc. and short prepositions: as, of, by, for, in, to, etc.  If the electronic journal article is retrieved from an online database, such as Science Direct or JSTOR, provide access information in parentheses.



Knoblock, Jacquelyn.  2008. “Gender and Violence: A Reflective Sociology of How Gender Ideologies

           and Practices Contribute to Gender Based Violence.” Human Architecture 6(2):91-101. 

           Retrieved August 10, 2017 from ( proquest 


Kalleberg, Arne L., Barbara F. Reskin, and Ken Hudson. 2000. “Bad Jobs in America: Standard and

           Nonstandard Employment Relations and Job Quality in the United States.” American

           Sociological Review 65(2):256-78. Retrieved July 6, 2017 from (


Article with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier)

Dempsey, Nicola, Glen Bramley, Sinéad Power, and Caroline Brown. (2011). “The Social Dimension

           of Sustainable Development: Defining Urban Social Sustainability.” Sustainable Development

           19(5):289–300. doi:10.1002/sd.417.

Other Electronic Resources  

Pettus, Emily Wagster. 2017. “Entrenched Poverty Tough to Shake in the Mississippi Delta.” St.

           Louis Post-Dispatch
, August 7. Retrieved August 11, 2017 from (


ONLINE MAGAZINE Gibson, Thomas. 1993. “Children Who Raise Themselves.” Faces 9(7):28-32.  Retrieved

           August 4, 2017  (


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