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AP, APA, Chicago/Turabian, MLA, and other citing resources for students.

C/T style tools

The most recent editions of Turabian's A Manual for Writers and The Chicago Manual of Style are always at the PML Reference Desk 


The Chicago Manual of Style is a publication manual, not just a citation style. It addresses all aspects of publication, including documentation. The book lays out two basic documentation systems, the Author-Date system (inventively called "Documentation I": abbreviated parenthetical references and reference list), and the Note system (Documentation II: foot- or end-notes, which provide room for comment, and a bibliography). Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and nature of sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars. Be sure to confirm which style your professor prefers you use.

Documentation I is more concise and has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

Documentation II is preferred by many in language and literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in notes and, often, a bibliography. It accommodates a variety of sources, including esoteric ones less appropriate to the author-date system.

The two dropdown pages on this tab provide some common examples of materials cited in both styles. For lots of specific examples, see chapters 16 and 17 of The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition.

Online sources that are analogous to print sources (such as articles published in online journals, magazines, or newspapers) should be cited similarly to their print counterparts but with the addition of a URL. Some publishers or disciplines may also require an access date for when you saw a site. For online or other electronic sources that do not have a direct print counterpart (such as an institutional Web site or a blog), give as much information as you can in addition to the URL (for instance the site or blog title, and date of an entry).


The Chicago and Turabian styles are nearly identical. The differences are mainly between how notes are numbered. 

In Turabian style, use superscript 1 for endnote and footnote numbers in the text and at the beginning of each note.

In Chicago style, the note number in the text is in parentheses (1) and is followed by a period and space in the note, as in the following example:

1. Chicago



Kate Turabian, the dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago for over 30 years, developed her guide for students and researchers writing papers, theses, and dissertations. Her manual is based on the University of Chicago Press's Manual of Style and departs from it in few places. "Turabian," as her guide is still called, synthesizes the rules most important for students' papers and other scholarly research not intended for publication, and omits some of the publishing details and options that "Chicago" provides, which is widely used by publishers.

C/T-style examples

For specific details and examples on citing sources within a paper and on creating a Works Cited page, mouseover the "Citations (Chicago/ Turabian) " tab above and choose the appropriate subpage

(Hint: Doc I is similar to MLA or APA styles; Doc II is "Humanities" or Turabian style)

Additional Info

Additional information on Chicago/Turabian style may be found at these websites:

Capitalization in Foreign-Language Titles

When citing a book or article title in a foreign languge, follow these basic rules regardless of citation style:

For German and Spanish, capitalize the first word and all nouns.

For French, capitalize all words until after the first noun in the title.

For Italian and other languages, capitalize just the first word.

(NOTE: Always capitalize all proper nouns, of course)